Trang An area is surrounded by arc-shaped limestone mountains in the middle of a flooded lowland that has undergone a long time of geological changes. Geologists confirm that the ancient Trang An area near Tam Coc Ninh Binh was an ancient sea, created through the process of geological movement. The cracks created by that movement gradually formed flows in the limestone cave. Trang An cave ecological area as an “outdoor geological museum”.

Trang An near Tam Coc Ninh Binh has a very diverse system of limestone mountains and natural caves, ranging in age from 32 million years to 6,000 years. At the foot of the limestone mountains, there are also frogs in many places, which are traces of the sea. Therefore, Hoa Lu – Ninh Binh limestone mountains are called “Ha Long on land”. In the eyes of natural scientists, this area has the value of a “dry Ha Long”, both literally and figuratively. Research shows that the Earth’s crust in Trang An – Tam Coc Ninh Binh area has a history of geological development from 245 million years to now, including 6 Triassic and Quaternary formations. The ancient karst block of Trang An – Tam Coc Ninh Binh has typical tropical features: rocky mountains or limestone blocks 150-200m high with tower-shaped tops, arches, bells and steep cliffs. The block margins are flat valleys that are prone to flooding in the rainy season. This feature creates a landscape of many low limestone mountains surrounding the valleys with successive lakes, both majestic and poetic.

In the karst cave system, the most unique is the type of “river cave” that crosses the heart of large mountain ranges and is regularly flooded. According to the Institute of Ecology and Statistical Biological Resources, in Trang An area alone, there are 50 water caves and 50 dry caves concentrated in clusters with a layered and continuous structure due to traces of the period when the sea advanced, the sea receded, so the water was invaded. , connecting the caves together. Here are valleys connected by trans-water caves. These caves and caves convey convective water flowing from one ravine to another.

According to many natural researchers, the most typical feature of geomorphological geology in Trang An near Tam Coc Ninh Binh is the number of caves that are very rich, diverse in morphology and type, forming clusters, diverse stalactites, etc. continuous layer structure; There are trans-water caves, pine caves and underground caves. As a typical tropical karst that has undergone long evolutionary stages, it is also clearly shown in the topography and sediments, which is significant for the study of climate and topographic evolution, marking the sea level rise in the Quaternary period associated with interglacials and climate warming; study the adaptation of humans in the period of the forward and backward seas and the change of climate environment in this period.

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